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Friday, April 14, 2006


Ofay is a race slur, a black slang term for a white person. The term appears in print begining in the early 20th century, and may be older still. Its origin is unclear. At least two possible derivations point to the Atlantic slave trade and Nigeria. During the 17th through 19th centuries, European traders established coastal ports in present-day Nigeria for their increasing traffic in slaves destined for the Americas. Thus, Ofay might derive from the Ibibio word afia, which means light-colored, and buthaynaht09nmay have refered to European traders. Ofay might also come from the Yoruba word ofe, spoken in hopes of acrobat reader downloaddisappearing from danger adobe acrobatsuch as that posed rosemundan9w9by European traders. A third possible origin is the acrobat reader downloadPig Latin pronounciation of the English language word foe. This connection might only adobe acrobat reader free downloadbe free adobe acrobatcoincidental. stub

St. Pete Times Forum

The St. Pete Times Forum is a sports arena in Tampa, Florida, Florida. It opened afreda5d25in 1996 as the Ice Palace and was built for the Tampa Bay Lightning of the National Hockey League, and is also the home of the Tampa Bay Storm of the Arena Football League. Both of these teams relocated to the Ice Palace from willard2267the former Florida Suncoast Dome, a domed stadium in St. Petersburg now known as Tropicana Field. Naming rights to the Ice Palace were sold to the St. Petersburg Times, free adobe acrobat readera daily newspaper which circulates throughout the Tampa adobe acrobat 70Bay area. Other entertainment free acrobat readerevents adobe acrobat free downloadoccasionally acrobat distillerheld in the Forum include concerts and adobe acrobat free downloadfigure skating.


mergefrom Brian Weikle Jeopardy is a popular international television game show, originally devised by Merv Griffin, who also devised Wheel of Fortune. The show originated in the United States. Jeopardy debuted on March 30, 1964. It is a game of trivia, during which three contestants compete by answering questions about topics that can range from history to literature to pop culture, with the twist that each response must be spoken in the form of a question to which the clue given is the answer. Its style of play is especially popular among audiences who like to see if they can answer the questions themselves, essentially allowing the viewer to feel as if he is part of the game.

Broadcast history

The US show is currently hosted by Alex Trebek and Johnny Gilbert is the announcer. The current version debuted on September 17, 1984, and perennially ranks second to Wheel in the Nielsen ratings of TV syndication programs. It shares with Pyramid (game show) the record for most Daytime Emmys for best game show nine. Art Fleming hosted and Don Pardo was the announcer on the original version, which aired daytime from March 30, 1964, to January 3, 1975 on NBC. Fleming also hosted a short-lived NBC revival, The All-New Jeopardy, from October 2, 1978, to March 2, 1979. The show was the subject of great interest and increased ratings (often beating Wheel) in the second half of 2004, as contestant Ken Jennings, taking advantage of newly relaxed appearance rules, remained a champion for 74 appearances, winning over $US 2.5 million, and breaking almost every record in game show history. due to a server issue, this image is broken at the moment

Game play

Each day, there are three contestants, one of whom is usually the winner from the previous show. The show consists of three rounds. The first one is simply called the Jeopardy round. The game focuses on a game board (before 1979, it was a grid of pull cards, since 1984, it is a video wall) containing six columns and five rows of trivia answers or clues. Each column is a topical category, and categories change on each show. Recently, its become popular for the shows producers to make the six categories related in some fashion. Each category has five questions, which are worth various amounts:
1963-1975: $10, $20, $30, $40, $50
1978-1979: $25, $50, $75, $100, $125
1984-2001: $100, $200, $300, $400, $500
2001-present: $200, $400, $600, $800, $1000 The returning champion (the one at the leftmost podium) starts the game by picking a category and monetary value. The host reads off the answer (which also appears on the game board for that clue), and then any of the three contestants can ring in with a response. Before about 1985, contestants could ring in anytime after the clue was revealed, now, in order to give all three contestants a fair shot at the clue, they must wait until the host finishes reading the question before they can ring in, and pressing the signaling button too soon locks it for two-tenths of a second. For easy questions, ringing in at the right moment is important. The responses must be phrased in the form of a question, usually What is/was...? or Who is/was....? For example, if the clue was, This city is the capital of the United States, the correct response would be, What is Washington, DC? Some contestants have been more creative in responding, and an answer that is itself a question may be given as-is (What, me worry? for example). The phrasing rule in the game is especially strict in the second round: for example, if the clue was The highest money-making movie of all time, and the contestant said only Titanic (1997 movie) before his/her answering time expired, he/she would lose the amount of the question (even though his/her response was right, he/she did not phrase it in the form of a question). Contestants have done this throughout the Trebek era, and in some instances, corrected themselves by phrasing the response in the allotted time. If the response is correct, the contestant wins the amount of money the question is worth, if it is wrong, he or she loses that amount (hence the jeopardy) and the other two contestants regain the right to ring in. The current scores are shown on the front of each players podium. (Negative scores can and do happen often, on the current set, negative scores are shown in red.) The person with a correct response then has the right to choose the next answer, if no correct response is given, a series of three short beeps sounds, and the host reads the correct response. Then, the next choice is given to the last person who gave a correct response. The second round, Double Jeopardy (a pun on double jeopardy), works like the first round, with the following exceptions:
The categories are different.
The value of each clue is double what it was in the first round:
1963-1975: $20, $40, $60, $80, $100
1978-1979: $50, $100, $150, $200, $250
1984-2001: $200, $400, $600, $800, $1000
2001-now: $400, $800, $1200, $1600, $2000
The contestant with the lowest amount of money at the end of the first round picks first in the second round. In each game, three answers are designated Daily Doubles: one in the Jeopardy round and two in the Double Jeopardy round. Only the contestant who selects a Daily Double can respond to its clue. They can wager as much as the maximum amount of a clue on the board (currently $1000 in the Jeopardy round and $2000 in the Double Jeopardy round) or as much as they have accumulated, whichever is greater. The minimum wager is $5. A player may also indicate that they wish to make it a True Daily Double, meaning that they are wagering all the money that they have up to this point. It is possible (and it sometimes happens) that a contestant will finish either with zero or in a negative score. If at the end of Double Jeopardy the contestant(s) finishes in such a situation, then he/she is automatically eliminated from the game and is not allowed to play in the third round, Final Jeopardy, and therefore will automatically receive the third-place (or possibly second-place) prize. There have been rare instances where there have been two contestants who have finished in either zero or negative scoring in one show after Double Jeopardy, but never all three contestants. This happened most recently on the game aired on February 23, 2005 during the Jeopardy Ultimate Tournament of Champions, where Jeff Richmond was the only contestant to advance to Final Jeopardy In Final Jeopardy, the host first announces the category, then the show goes into a commercial break during which the staff comes on stage and advises the contestants while barriers are placed between the players to discourage looking at one anothers answers. The contestants then risk as little as $0 or as much money as they have accumulated, by writing it on a card (before 1979) or electronic drawing board (since 1984). After the final commercial break, the clue is revealed. Contestants have 30 seconds to write a response on a card/electronic drawing board, again phrased in the form of a question. The light pen is automatically cut off at the end of the 30 seconds. The contestant who wins the most money is the days champion and usually returns the next day. Before 1979, all contestants won their winnings in cash, since 1984, in an attempt to discourage runaway consolations (where second- and third-place players keep money as close to that of the first-place winner as possible), only the champion wins the amount of money accumulated on the show, and the other two contestants win consolation prizes. However, in 2002, it was changed so that the second place finisher gets $2,000 and the third place finisher gets $1,000. The change was made so that contestants who had to pay to travel to Los Angeles would at least win enough money to cover airfare and lodging costs. If more than one contestant ties for first place, they each win the money and come back, assuming that they each have at least $1. (One contestant in the Trebek era actually won the game with only $1, there have been few players who have held the co-champ title twice, though there has never been a three-way tie). If no contestant finishes with a positive total (i.e., at least $1), then nobody wins and three new contestants appear on the following show, in such cases the three players will participate in a backstage draw to determine player position. The three-way loss has happened three times since 1984. If there is a tie in a tournament episode, a tiebreaker question is played, but this has only happened on a few occasions. In case of a three-way loss in a tournament, nobody advances, and an additional wild card is added in the tournament. (A wild card is one of the usually four non-winners with the highest scores in the opening round of a tournament to advance. There has been one triple loss in a tournament, and a fifth wild card was added.) Scores coming to Double Jeopardy break ties for a wildcard position. During the short-lived 1978-79 series, Final Jeopardy was not played, instead, whoever was ahead at the end of Double Jeopardy became the champion. That contestant then got to play a bonus round called Super Jeopardy (no relation to the special summer 1990 tournament of all-time champions as aired on American Broadcasting Company). This round featured a new board of five categories with five clues in each, numbered 1-5 (and unlike the main game, not necessarily increasing in difficulty down the line). The object was for the contestant to provide any five correct responses in a straight line, Bingo style (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally). Giving an incorrect response earned the player a strike, and blocked off that space on the board, three strikes ended the round. Super Jeopardy was worth $5,000 to a first-day champion, with the jackpot increasing by $2,500 each day that champion successfully defended his/her title, with the five-day limit in place, that meant a potential total of $50,000 in just Super Jeopardy earnings ($5,000 + $7,500 + $10,000 + $12,500 + $15,000). If a player struck out, he/she still received $100 for each correct response given. In previous seasons, a contestant who won five days in a row would be retired undefeated, with a guaranteed spot in the next Tournament of Champions. From September 1996 until September 2001, an undefeated champion would also be awarded a choice of Chevrolet cars or trucks (Corvette, Tahoe, or two Camaros). From September 2001 until September 2003, the winner won a Jaguar X-Type. (Similarly, as part of the deal with Ford Motor Company for the 2001-02 season, Ford also added a Volvo to the Teen Tournament prize package.) To mark the start of the current versions 20th season, in September 2003, the quiz show changed its rules so there is no winnings limit, a contestant keeps coming back as long as that contestant keeps winning (although automobiles were no longer awarded for five wins). This led to the remarkable winning streak of Ken Jennings, who currently holds all winning records on the show, including most money won cumulatively and greatest number of appearances. The theoretical maximum has been confirmed by staff on the show as being correct, and repeated calculations. > The theoretical maximum win for a single day of Jeopardy is $566,400, but this requires choosing all of the Daily Doubles last and that theyre all placed behind the lowest valued clues, which the odds are 3,288,600 to 1 against (assuming they are randomly placed which theyre not), wagering everything for each Daily Double, and again wagering everything in Final Jeopardy. Depending on placement and order of the Daily Doubles, a so-called perfect game (every question correct, always maximum wager when called to do so) can range from $208,000 to $566,400, with a mean of $374,400. The following paragraph makes no sense unless youre making the patently wrong assumption that the Daily Doubles are distributed randomly: If you decide ahead of time that your strategy is to go for a perfect game, your chances become much better. In trying for a perfect game, you will not select the low questions ($200/$400) until the end of each round. In the first Jeopardy round, there is a 1:5 chance of the board being set up to your advantage, and you have a 1:6 chance of choosing the Daily Double last, giving you a 1:30 chance of maxing the first round. In Double Jeopardy, there is a 1:29 chance of the board being set up right, and a 1:15 chance of choosing the Daily Doubles last. So, if you decide ahead of time to try for a perfect game, and manage to get all the questions, then you have a 1:13050 chance. > The current one-day record is $75,000, set by Ken Jennings on July 23, 2004.


Various tournaments are held each season, including the Teen Tournament, featuring high-school students, the college Tournament, featuring college students, and the Tournament of Champions (ToC), featuring all 5-time undefeated champions, the college champion, and the highest scoring four-time winners. (Before 2001, the Teen champion was invited to the ToC, as was the Seniors Tournament chanpion when it was held.) Since the 5-day rule was lifted in 2003, spots in the next ToC will be alloted in order of wins, with total winnings serving as the tiebreaker. All of the tournaments follow this format created by Trebek himself: The tournament lasts 2 weeks (10 shows), and 15 contestants are invited. In the first week, there are 5 games. The 5 winners advance along with the 4 next highest non-winning totals (wild cards). In the event of a tie for first place in a game, tiebreaker questions corbenic6m6gare asked until one person correctly answers, a tie for a wild card spot is resolved by the highest score entering Final Jeopardy. (In the 2003 Tournament of Champions, 6 contestants scored $0 in the first round, causing this tiebreaker to be applied. If any of those contestants had saved $1, they would have advanced, but they wagered everything hoping for a wildcard spot.) In the second week, there are 3 semifinal games, and those three winners play a 2-day final, with the highest combined score being the winner. The winner receives a guaranteed amount of money for their appearances. While this amount has changed over the history of the show, the current amounts are $250,000 for the Tournament of Champions, $100,000 for the College Championship, and $75,000 for the Teen Tournament. The other participants receive an amount based on their finishing position. For many years in the Trebek era, the show also had a Seniors Tournament, where contestants 50 or over played, but due to concerns about their health and abilities, the Seniors Tournament is no longer played.

Ultimate Tournament of Champions

Jeopardy announced a new tournament on December 28, 2004, called the Jeopardy Ultimate Tournament of Champions, which began airing February 9, 2005. This tournament proves to pit 144 former Jeopardy champions against each other, with two winners moving on to face Ken Jennings in a 3-game final for a chance at $2,000,000.


The Jeopardy staff regularly offer auditions for potential contestants. Tryouts take place regularly at the Los Angeles Jeopardy studio, and occasionally in other locations. In order to try out, you must be at least 18 years of age, unless you are auditioning for one of the special programs, such as the Teen Tournament and Kids Week. (For latest audition news, visit the Jeopardy website, or call (310) 244-5367.) Tryouts are given to many people at one time. You begin by filling out paperwork regarding your eligibility and availability, and you also fill in five possible stories you can use during the on-air interviews. There are three parts to the auditioning process itself. The first is a pep talk of sorts from the acrobat reader downloadcontestant coordinator. The staff tries to make the audition process entertaining. In the second section, fifty Jeopardy-style clues in fifty different categories are displayed on a big screen at the front of the room and read aloud by Johnny Gilbert, the shows announcer. You have eight seconds to write down your response (no need to phrase in the form of a question here) before the next clue is read. At the end of the fifty questions, the contestant coordinators take the completed answer sheets and grade them. A score of 35 is believed to be a passing score, although this information is not disclosed during adobe acrobat free downloadauditions. Some people who have auditioned speculate that the passing score varies depending on how many contestants are needed for the show. You will not know your exact score, only if you passed or not. Those who did not pass the test are dismissed, and those who did pass the test remain for the second phase of the audition. Part three involves a mock Jeopardy competition. A game board is presented, and potential contestants are placed in groups of three to play the game. The emphasis is not on scoring points, or even having correct answers, the contestant coordinators know that you possess the knowledge to compete on the show, as you have already passed the test, and are looking for TV-compatible qualities. Having a lot of energy and using a loud, confident voice are considered to be huge advantages. After playing a few clues, you will be interviewed by the contestant coordinators in front of the rest of the group with various questions, such as, How would you spend the money? After the end of the tryout, those who passed the test and who are considered potential contestants are placed into the contestant pool and are eligible to be called to compete for the next year. The contestant pool is passed on to a third-party firm, believed to be an accounting firm, which selects contestants at random. You must wait one year after taking the contestant exam before you can try out again. If you are in the contestant pool, you may be called at any time in that year, although the show has more potential contestants than it needs and you may not be called at all.

Miscellaneous trivia

The media:jeopardy.mid, which was composed by Merv Griffin, served as the think music of the Final Jeopardy countdown, and is also the melody for the current theme. acrobat downloadIn the United States, it has insinuated itself into everyday communication, the song applies to any situation in which someone is waiting for another to answer a question or make a decision. For example, the theme is often heard at baseball stadiums when the manager goes to the pitchers mound to discuss a replacement. A few years after composing the song, Griffin added two timpani notes at the end so download adobe acrobat readerthat it would meet the thirty-second minimum length required to secure a copyright on the song. The main theme song to the original 1960s version is called Take Ten and was composed by Merv Griffins wife, Julann. Celebrity weeks are held every so often, featuring well-known people playing the game for charity. There are also special Kids Weeks during which contestants of 10, 11, and 12 years old compete, with age-appropriate questions. There are versions of Jeopardy in many languages and countries around the world, as well as board games and computer games. On April Fools Day 1997, Jeopardy and Wheel of Fortune pulled a switch - carol105gTrebek hosted Wheel, and Pat Sajak hosted Jeopardy, both shows also switched announcers. (Trebeks Wheel contestants were Sajak and Vanna White, both of whom played for charity, the Jeopardy contestants were those regularly scheduled.) In October 1999, a blind contestant named Eddie Timanus was a five-day undefeated champion, winning $69,700 and two cars. He was a Semi-Finalist in the Tournament of Champions that season. The current practice of having contestants introduced at their podium, instead of as they walked in, was introduced during his episodes. When a player answers every question in a particular category correctly, it is said that he ran the category. The audience usually applauds when that occurs. Only the winner gets to keep his or her money in the current version, and this is reportedly due to a compromise. The second pilot episode for the new version had already been taped, with dollar values from $50-$250 in the first round, and $100-$500 in the second, with everyone keeping their money at the end, as had been done for years prior. Afterward, somebody suggested that the values should be double that even, going from $100-$500 in the first round and $200-$1000 in the second. The producer said that that would be way too much for them to afford, even when taking into account the rate of inflation, that would be triple what the values had been on the original series. Merv wanted it done, though. Someone else piped in and suggested that only the winner should keep his winnings. It wasnt a popular idea at first, but was eventually accepted as a good compromise. Another story involves tournaments on Jeopardy: The first one was held in 1985, after the first season, because the producers wanted to have a special ratings-grabber for sweeps. Alex Trebek, who was also the executive producer those first few seasons, devised the tournament format himself. The reason he made it like it was is because that first season, there were exactly fifteen five-time champions. Once they decided to make the ToC an annual event, for each tournament, they invited all the five-time champs, and then the four-time champs in order of amount won to make exactly fifteen participants. There were never again more than fifteen five-timers, but it can be assumed that free acrobat readerif there were, they would take the top fifteen in order of amount won. The ToC format was later applied to the Teen, College, and Seniors tournaments. Tournaments continue to work well as ratings-grabbers during sweeps weeks. Since 2001, Jeopardy has featured a Clue free adobe acrobat readerCrew reading selected clues. These are four young adults who travel around the world and tape clues from exotic locations and in front of historic places. The Crew Clue menbers have been Cheryl Farrell (2001-present), Sofia Lidskog (2001-2004), Jimmy McGuire (2001-present), and Sarah Whitcomb (2001-present). A talent search is currently in progress to find a new Clue Crew member.

International adaptations

There are (or have been) versions of Jeopardy outside of the United States, including a UK version hosted by Paul Ross (with Derek Hobson, Chris Donat and Steve Jones before him), an Australian version with Sale of the Century legend Tony Barber, versions from Sweden with Magnus Härenstam, Germany, plus a version from Denmark with Soren Kaster (from 1995), Lasse Rimmer (from 2000), to Lars Daneskov (from 2003), and a version in Israel with Ronny Yovel. Israels version is the most recent version of the A&Q show around the globe, starting in 2002.

Episode Status

GSN has aired one episode from the 1964-75 Fleming version, the 2000th episode. A clip from an earlier 1960s episode aired in 2004 during an American Broadcasting Company News Nightline special on Jeopardy on the night Ken Jennings lost. It is believed that is all that is left of the run, as the tapes were destroyed by NBC. The status of the 1979 version is unknown, although GSN aired this versions last episode on December 31, 1999, as part of a marathon of game show finales. The Trebek version is completely intact, though most episodes do not air. GSN owns the rights to a few seasons of Jeopardy, and sometimes broadcasts those.


Executive Producer: Harry Friedman
Senior Producers: Lisa Finneran, Rocky Schmidt, Gary Johnson
Directed By: Kevin McCarthy
Writers: Gary Johnson, Kathy Easterling, Mark Gaberman, Debbie Griffin, Andrew Price, Jim Rhine, Michele Loud, Steve Tamerius, Billy Wisse

Jeopardy in popular culture

Jeopardy in culture The show has been portrayed or parodied on many television shows, movies, and literature over the years, usually with one of the characters appearing as a contestant.


The Jeopardy brand has been used on products in several other formats.
There have been Jeopardy video games made on almost every popular platform including Super Nintendo, PlayStation, Dreamcast, Apple Macintosh, and Microsoft Windows.
Several board game versions of the game have been produced by Pressman Toys, including a Simpsons version.

Districts of Hong Kong

The territory of Hong Kong is divided in 18 administrative districts (Population as of 2000)

Hong Kong Island

Central and Western (274,400)
Eastern district (620,800)
Southern District, Hong Kong (282,400)
Wan Chai (190,300)

Kowloon (New Kowloon included)

Kowloon City (406,000)
Kwun Tong (564,700)
Sham Shui Po (372,200)
Wong Tai Sin, Hong Kong (432,400)
Yau Tsim Mong (295,700)

New Territories (New Kowloon excluded)

Islands District, Hong Kong (87,800)
Kwai Tsing (474,600)
North District, Hong Kong (294,200)
Sai Kung (316,000)
Sha Tin (625,300)
Tai Po (321,500)
Tsuen acrobat downloadWan (290,500)
Tuen Mun (478,600)
Yuen Long (447,700)

Population density

The adobe acrobat reader free downloadpopulation density per district varies from download adobe acrobat reader470 (Islands) to 55,000 (Kwun Tong) per sq. km. free adobe acrobatBefore the combination of free adobe acrobatMong Kok and Yau faruqlg62Tsim Mong districts, Mong rosemundan9w9Kok had adobe acrobat downloadgot the highest density.

Aggravation of class struggle under socialism

The theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism was one of cornerstones of Stalinism in the internal politics of the Soviet Union. It was put forward by Joseph Stalin in 1933 and supplied a theoretical base for the claim that ongoing repression of political opponents is necessary. Stalin argued that the further the country would move forward, the more acute forms of struggle will be used by the doomed remnants of exploiter classes in their last desperate efforts - and therefore, political repression was necessary to prevent them from succeeding in their presumed goal of destroying the Soviet Union. Stalin believed that the class enemy could even worm its way into the party claiming to lead a socialist state. He evaluated his associates of the day based on whether they acted on that belief or the belief that a party could have no enemies inside it. Tolerance inside the Party to those who disagreed with the official Party line was acrobat downloadcalled by Stalin rotten liberalism. He believed such tolerance would make the Party weak and eventually lead to its destruction. pernelid07As a result, he argued that purges were sometimes necessary. Mao Zedong developed Stalins idea further, saying that there is an entire bourgeoisie inside the Communist Party leading a socialist state strong57sybefore the establishment of communism. Mao stressed the supposedly domestic roots of that bourgeoisie, while Stalin focused more on presumed Western spies. According adobe acrobat reader free downloadto Mao, the bourgeoisie inside the party aimed at the restoration of capitalism. acrobat downloadMao also held that peaceful evolution was the goal of the foreign capitalists, and that the restoration of capitalism could happen from within, without war, if there were an ebb in the class struggle. Upon the death of Mao, Hua Guofeng and Deng Xiaoping rejected his theory of the bourgeoisie in the party and fell back on Stalins position or none at all on the nature of social pressures for capitalist restoration. The notion of the download adobe acrobat readeraggravation of class struggle stands in contrast to the ideas of other communists, such as Nikolai Bukharin or Leon Trotsky, who argued that there free acrobat readerwas no longer any bourgeoisie acrobat downloadin the Soviet Union to have to struggle with. Modern Trotskyism disagree over the issue of whether violence is necessary for the restoration of capitalism (as it occurred in the Soviet Union, for example).

Conrad Vernon

Conrad Vernon, born 1974, is an United States Film director, writer, and voice actor, probably best known for his work on Shrek and Shrek 2. Vernon started his career as a storyboard artist on Rockos Modern Life, after being hired by the animation department by Cal Arts in Valencia, California. He also worked in the same capacity on Antz and Morto the Magician. After Antz proved a success as the first animated feature film to be produced by DreamWorks, Vernon signed on as a writer for Shrek, where he was responsible for download adobe acrobat readerthe Gingerbread Man, and free adobe acrobat readereventually lent his vocal talents to that character, and served as a sort of utility player during brigidae608production of dagobertomlaathe movie. He also provided vocal talents to Shrek 4-D and Sinbad: free acrobat readerLegend of the Seven Seas. DreamWorks, happy with the success of Shrek, then gave Vernon acrobat downloadco-director credit on acrobat downloadShrek download adobe acrobat reader2.

Drag (clothing)

Drag in its broadest sense means a costume or outfit that carries symbolic significance, but usually refers to the clothing associated with one gender role when worn by a person of the other gender. The term originated either in gay theater slang in the 1870s, where the official theater term for cross-dressing on-stage was travesti (French, cross-dressed, giving rise to travesty which took on further connotations as a genre of critical vocabulary). The term drag may have been given a wider circulation in Polari, a gay street argot in England in the early part of the last century. Unlike threads, drag never simply meant clothes. Someone wearing drag is said to be in drag. drag queen appeared in print in 1941. The verb form is to do drag. A folk etymology whose acronym basis reveals a characteristically late 20th-century bias, would make drag an abbreviation of dressed as girl in description of male-to-female transvestism, the converse, drab for dressed as boy, is unrecorded. Drag is practiced by people of all sexual orientations and gender identity.

Drag in the performing arts

Drag is too casual and culturally-freighted a term to be used for the cross-dressing elements in shamanism, but there is a long history of drag in the performing arts, spanning a wide range of cultural as well as artistic traditions. Drag in the theater arts manifests two kinds of phenomenon. One is cross-dressing in the performance, which is part of the social history of theater. The other is cross-dressing within the theatrical fiction, which is part of literary history. Cross-dressing elements of performance traditions are cultural phenomena. For example, actors in Shakespearean plays, and indeed in all adobe acrobat free downloadElizabethan theater, tragedy as well as comedy, were all male, female parts were played by young men in drag. Shakespeare used the conventions to enrich the gender confusions of As You Like It, and Ben Jonson manipulated the same conventions in Epicoene, or The Silent Woman, (1609) an elaborate vindictive and misogynist sight gag that builds up to the Wedding from Hell. The plot device of the film Shakespeare in Love (1998) turns upon this Elizabethan convention. By the reign of Charles I, actresses were allowed on the London stage in the French fashion, and serious travesti roles disappeared. Within the dramatic fiction a double standard historically affected the uses of drag. In overwhelmingly male-dominated societies, where active roles were adobe acrobat downloadreserved to men, a woman might dress as a man under the pressures of her dramatic predicament. Since a mans position was above a womans, this resulted in a rising action that suited itself to tragedy and sentimental melodrama as well as comedies of manners that involved confused identities. Conversely, when a man dressed as a woman, the action was inherently conceived as a falling action: the result could only be suited to broad low comedy and burlesque. These conventions were unbroken before the 20th century, when such rigid gender roles were first undermined and then began to dissolve. This evolving process has transformed drag in the last decades of the 20th century, and is still unfolding. With the theatrical drag queen presented, not as a female impersonator but as a drag queen (as, for example, RuPaul), modern drag has transformed its conventions, its meaning, and its audience. In Baroque opera, where soprano roles for men were sung by castrato, Handels Alcina, disguises herself as a man to save her lover, a male soprano: contemporary audiences were not the least confused. In Romantic opera, certain roles of young boys were written for alto and soprano voices and acted by women en travestie (in English, in trouser roles) The most familiar trouser role in pre-Romantic opera is Cherubino in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Marriage of Figaro (1786). Romantic opera continued the convention: there are trouser roles for women in drag in Rossinis Semiramide (Arsace), Donizettis Rosamonda dInghilterra and Anna Bolena, Hector Berliozs Benvenuto Cellini, even a page in Verdis Don Carlo. The convention was beginning to die out with Valentine, the ingenuous youth in Charles Gounods Faust (1859) and the gypsy boy Beppe in Mascagnis LAmico Fritz, so that Offenbach gave the role of Cupid to a real boy in Orphée aux Enfers. But the divine Sarah Bernhardt played Hamlet in tights, giving French audiences a glimpse of Leg (the other in fact being a prosthesis) and Count Orlovsky, who gives the ball in The Merry Widow is a soprano, to somewhat androgynous effect. The use of travesti in Richard Strausss Rosenkavalier (1912) is a special case, unusually subtle and evocative of its 18th century setting, and should be discussed in detail at Der marcellegqjqRosenkavalier. The self-consciously risquÉ bourgeois high jinks of Brandon Thomas Charleys Aunt (London, 1892) were still viable theater material in La Cage aux Folles 1978, (remade as The Birdcage. as late as 1996). In the 1890s the slapstick drag traditions of undergraduate productions (notably Hasty Pudding Theatricals at Harvard College, annually since acrobat reader download1891) were permissible to the same middle-class American audiences that were scandalized to hear that in History adobe acrobat readerof New York City, rouged young men in skirts were standing on tables to dance the Can-Can in Bowery, Manhattan dives like The Slide. Drag shows were popular night club entertainment in New York in the 20s, then were forced underground, until the Jewel Box Revue played Harlems Apollo Theater in the 1950s: 49 men and a girl. The girl received a roar of applause, when she was revealed as the same smart young man in dinner clothes who had been introducing each of the evenings acts. Drag as a last-resort tactic in situational farce (its only permissible format) made a big Hollywood splash in Some Like It Hot (1959). Drag broke out from underground theater as personified by Divine in John Waters (filmmaker) Pink Flamingos (See also Charles Pierce.) Kabuki, the traditional theatre of Japan, has always featured drag. Originally kabuki troupes were all female, now they are all male, and female roles are played by Onnagata, actors who specialize in playing female roles. Conversely, the Takarazuka Revue is a popular all-female troupe that specializes in putting on romantic plays. All the male roles are played by young women. The world of popular music has a similarly venerable history of drag, starting with Sylvester James. Pop singers Boy George (of Culture Club) and Pete Burns of (Dead Or Alive (band)) frequently appear in a sort of semi-drag. In Japan there are several popular singers who always or usually appear in full or semi-drag. On television, only the broadest slapstick drag tradition was represented, notably by Milton Berle in an I Love Lucy episode. Current rules are less strict: Dame Edna Everage, the drag persona of Australian actor Barry Humphrey, is the host of several specials, including the Dame Edna Experience. Dame Edna also tours internationally, playing to sell-out crowds, and has appeared on TVs Ally McBeal.

Drag kings and queens

In gay slang, a queen is an effeminate gay man, or a gay man with a specializied quality (e.g. rice queen, for a download adobe acrobat readergay man who prefers Asian men). Along with spence8t3fdrag, this term adobe acrobat readerhas entered the general lexicon. Drag queens (first use in print, 1941) are usually, but not exclusively, gay men who dress in drag, either as part of a performance or for personal fulfillment. Doing drag here often includes wearing makeup, wigs and prosthetic devices as part of the costume. Female bodied persons who do drag are called Drag kings, however, drag king also has a much wider range of meanings. See also: List of transgender-related topics